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Enhancing Flow Antecedents to Promote Flow and Increase Basketball Shooting Performance

Waraphongthanachot, Phatsorn (2019) Enhancing Flow Antecedents to Promote Flow and Increase Basketball Shooting Performance. PhD thesis, Victoria University.

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Abstract

In this thesis, I examined the impact on flow and shooting performance of imagery interventions designed to increase proposed antecedents of flow, illuminating mechanisms underlying the positive experience of flow in basketball players. Flow is a positive psychological state that is associated with high levels of enjoyment, intrinsic motivation, and performance, so athletes and coaches aim to optimize flow. Imagery is a powerful technique that has been shown to enhance performance and flow state in sport. Stavrou and Zervas (2004) proposed that five dimensions of flow are antecedents that can enhance the experience of flow. This thesis comprises three studies with parallel structure, using a pre-test, intervention, post-test study design. In pre-test and post-test, participants performed 40 shots (eight trials x five locations around the basketball key) at 4.5 metres (2-point) and 40 shots (same five angles) at 6.75 metres (3-point). In the Imagery condition, participants completed six 15-minute imagery sessions over two weeks, focusing on the designated antecedent dimension. The Video Placebo condition involved equivalent attention focused on watching video of basketball game competition. Participants were randomly assigned to conditions. I used Two-way Mixed-design ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests to examine shooting performance and all nine flow dimensions in all three studies. In Study 1, I examined whether the imagery of three flow dimensions, challenge-skill balance (C-S balance), clear goals, and unambiguous feedback, enhanced flow states and increased shooting performance with 18 male and 8 female basketball players. The Flow Antecedents Imagery condition involved imagining clear goals and unambiguous feedback of shooting in an individualised C-S balance context. The Video Placebo condition involved equivalent time watching video of elite performers shooting in competition. Results indicated that the Flow Antecedents Imagery intervention enhanced the three targeted flow dimensions, C-S balance, clear goals, and unambiguous feedback, as well as global flow with significant interaction effects. The Flow Antecedents Imagery condition improved 2-point, 3-point, and total shooting significantly more than the Video Placebo condition. In Study 2, I examined the impact of an imagery intervention designed to increase total concentration on flow and performance with 18 male and 12 female basketball players. Flow is the feeling athletes get when they are totally absorbed in their sport, whether in training or competition. Thus, total concentration is a key antecedent dimension of flow. The Flow Antecedents Imagery condition involved imagining total concentration on shooting. The Video Placebo condition involved equivalent time watching video of game competition. Results indicated that the Flow Antecedents Imagery condition increased all nine flow dimensions and improved 2-point and total shooting significantly more than the Video Placebo condition. In Study 3, I examined the impact of an imagery intervention designed to increase sense of control on flow and performance with 16 male and 14 female basketball players. This involves imagining individuals feeling calm and confident during basketball shooting performance. The Flow Antecedents Imagery condition involved imagining feeling relaxed, calm, and confident while shooting. The Video Placebo condition involved equivalent time watching video of game competition. Results showed that the Imagery condition improved 2-, 3-point, and total shooting significantly more than the Video Placebo condition. Imagery of sense of control enhanced basketball-shooting performance, but significant pre-test differences interfered with effects of imagery on flow dimensions. In the three studies in this thesis, I found substantial evidence supporting the role of imagery of the five antecedents of flow as an effective technique for enhancing global flow state, flow state dimensions, and performance, which should promote further research on the antecedents of flow in sport.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD thesis)
Uncontrolled Keywords: flow; basketball players; basketball; imagery; performance
Subjects: FOR Classification > 1701 Psychology
Faculty/School/Research Centre/Department > College of Sports and Exercise Science
Depositing User: VUIR
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2020 22:13
Last Modified: 28 Jan 2020 22:13
URI: http://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/40036
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