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Hallway smoke alarms: often specified, how effective?

Thomas, Ian and Bruck, Dorothy (2011) Hallway smoke alarms: often specified, how effective? Fire Safety Science : proceedings of the tenth international symposium, 10. pp. 847-860. ISSN 1817-4299

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Abstract

Smoke alarms in hallways of dwellings are specified in many jurisdictions, sometimes as the only required alarms and sometimes in conjunction with smoke alarms in other rooms, usually bedrooms. How effective are they compared with the same alarms in rooms but interconnected so that when one is activated they all sound? There are two major functions of smoke alarms — reliable and rapid detection of smoke and reliable and effective warning of building occupants. Both of these aspects are investigated using the data from a recent project intended to help determine the most appropriate location(s) of smoke alarms in dwellings in Australia. A sound level of at least 75 dBA but preferably higher in rooms is required to make it very likely that building occupants similar to those recently killed in dwelling fires in Australia would respond when asleep. The sound level in rooms due to hallway alarms was found to vary considerably and was generally well below this level even with the room doors open and was lower again with the door closed. The time taken for a particular type of smoke alarm to activate and the probability of it activating at all when in hallways was found to be significantly greater than the time taken for a similar smoke alarm to activate when in the room of fire origin (RFO). The RFO door being closed was also found to be very likely to prevent smoke alarms in hallways or rooms other than the RFO from activating, and at the very least to very substantially delay activation. Overall, hallway smoke alarms were found to take substantially longer and to be significantly less likely to activate than similar alarms in the RFO. Taking into consideration both the received sound level in a room and the time and likelihood of alarm activation it is concluded that hallway smoke alarms are much less effective than interconnected smoke alarms in every room. It appears likely that if there are interconnected smoke alarms in every room in a dwelling the probability of an occupant being killed in the event of a fire is much less than if there are unconnected hallway smoke alarms instead.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information:

10th International Symposium on Fire Safety Science University of Maryland, USA, 19-24 June 2011

Uncontrolled Keywords: ResPubID22975, ResPubID23566, smoke detection, sound levels, measurements, hallways, halls, smoke alarm location, buildings, human factors, loudness, volume, smoke detection, audibility, audible, fatalities, fatality
Subjects: Faculty/School/Research Centre/Department > School of Social Sciences and Psychology
Faculty/School/Research Centre/Department > Centre for Environmental Safety and Risk Engineering (CESARE)
FOR Classification > 1299 Other Built Environment and Design
SEO Classification > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health)
FOR Classification > 0905 Civil Engineering
SEO Classification > 970117 Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
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Depositing User: VUIR
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2013 02:25
Last Modified: 29 Aug 2014 05:23
URI: http://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/9484
DOI: 10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.10-847
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Citations in Scopus: 0 - View on Scopus

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