Biofeedback Training Effect on Minimum Toe Clearance Variability During Treadmill Walking

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Tirosh, Oren, Campbell, Amity, Begg, Rezaul and Sparrow, William A (2013) Biofeedback Training Effect on Minimum Toe Clearance Variability During Treadmill Walking. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41 (8). pp. 1661-1669. ISSN 0090-6964 (print) 1573-9686 (online)


A number of variability analysis techniques, including Poincaré plots and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were used to investigate minimum toe clearance (MTC) control during walking. Ten young adults walked on a treadmill for 10 min at preferred speed in three conditions: (i) no-intervention baseline, (ii) with biofeedback of MTC within a target range, and (iii) no-biofeedback retention. Mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and inter quartile range of MTC during biofeedback (45.57 ± 11.65, 44.98 ± 11.57, 7.08 ± 2.61, 8.58 ± 2.77 mm, respectively) and retention (56.95 ± 20.31, 56.69 ± 20.94, 10.68 ± 5.41, 15.38 ± 10.19 mm) were significantly greater than baseline (30.77 ± 9.49, 30.51 ± 9.49, 3.04 ± 0.77, 3.66 ± 0.91 mm). Relative to baseline, skewness was reduced in biofeedback and retention but only significantly for retention (0.88 ± 0.51, 0.63 ± 0.55, and 0.40 ± 0.40, respectively). Baseline Poincaré measures (SD1 = 0.25, SD2 = 0.34) and DFA (α1 = 0.72 and α2 = 0.64) were lower than biofeedback (SD1 = 0.58, SD2 = 0.83, DFA α1 = 0.76 and α2 = 0.92) with significantly greater variability in retention compared to biofeedback only in the long-term SD2 and α2 analyses. Increased DFA longer-term correlations α2 in retention confirm that a novel gait pattern was acquired with a longer-term variability structure. Short- and long-term variability analyses were both useful in quantifying gait adaptations with biofeedback. The findings provide evidence that MTC can be modified with feedback, suggesting future applications in gait training procedures for impaired populations designed to reduce tripping risk.

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Item type Article
DOI 10.1007/s10439-012-0673-6
Official URL
Subjects Historical > FOR Classification > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science
Historical > SEO Classification > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health)
Current > Division/Research > College of Sports and Exercise Science
Keywords ResPubID26362, gait, gait variability, biofeedback, detrended fluctuation analysis, Poincaré measures, motor learning, measurement, plus or minus, alpha
Citations in Scopus 13 - View on Scopus
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