Sports crowd violence: An interdisciplinary synthesis

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Spaaij, Ramon ORCID: 0000-0002-1260-3111 (2014) Sports crowd violence: An interdisciplinary synthesis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19 (2). pp. 146-155. ISSN 1359-1789


Crowd violence is a regular feature of spectator sports around the world. Contemporary research recognizes the diversity and complexity of this violence, but serious interdisciplinary work on the topic remains sparse. This article suggests that there is a need for increased dialogue across academic disciplines. I examine how themes and issues emanating from different disciplines may be brought together to produce a fuller, multi-level analysis that integrates distal and proximate causes of sports crowd violence. Using a socio-ecological model, it is shown that fan violence arises from the dynamic interplay between individual, interpersonal, situational, social environmental, and social structural factors. I also review key continua of sports crowd violence pertaining to its scale, coordination, purpose, sources, and relation to social norms. The article concludes by presenting directions for future research on sports crowd violence.

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Item type Article
DOI 10.1016/j.avb.2014.02.002
Official URL
Subjects Historical > FOR Classification > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science
Current > Division/Research > College of Sports and Exercise Science
Keywords fans, hooliganism, social ecology, spectators, sport, violence
Citations in Scopus 47 - View on Scopus
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