The emerging antioxidant paradigm of mesenchymal stem cell therapy

Stavely, Rhian and Nurgali, Kulmira ORCID: 0000-0002-2597-6929 (2020) The emerging antioxidant paradigm of mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine, 9 (9). pp. 985-1006. ISSN 2157-6564

Abstract

© 2020 The Authors. STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press Mesenchymal stem cells (multipotent stromal cells; MSCs) have been under investigation for the treatment of diverse diseases, with many promising outcomes achieved in animal models and clinical trials. The biological activity of MSC therapies has not been fully resolved which is critical to rationalizing their use and developing strategies to enhance treatment efficacy. Different paradigms have been constructed to explain their mechanism of action, including tissue regeneration, trophic/anti-inflammatory secretion, and immunomodulation. MSCs rarely engraft and differentiate into other cell types after in vivo administration. Furthermore, it is equivocal whether MSCs function via the secretion of many peptide/protein ligands as their therapeutic properties are observed across xenogeneic barriers, which is suggestive of mechanisms involving mediators conserved between species. Oxidative stress is concomitant with cellular injury, inflammation, and dysregulated metabolism which are involved in many pathologies. Growing evidence supports that MSCs exert antioxidant properties in a variety of animal models of disease, which may explain their cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. In this review, evidence of the antioxidant effects of MSCs in in vivo and in vitro models is explored and potential mechanisms of these effects are discussed. These include direct scavenging of free radicals, promoting endogenous antioxidant defenses, immunomodulation via reactive oxygen species suppression, altering mitochondrial bioenergetics, and donating functional mitochondria to damaged cells. Modulation of the redox environment and oxidative stress by MSCs can mediate their anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties and may offer an explanation to the diversity in disease models treatable by MSCs and how these mechanisms may be conserved between species.

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Item type Article
URI https://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/41445
DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/sctm.19-0446
Official URL https://stemcellsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/...
Subjects Historical > FOR Classification > 1107 Immunology
Historical > FOR Classification > 1116 Medical Physiology
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Health and Sport
Keywords mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent stromal cells, MSCs, regenerative medicine, antioxidant effect, inflammation, immune function, upregulation antioxidant defenses, cellular bioenergetics
Citations in Scopus 25 - View on Scopus
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