Developing and Psychometrically Testing the ‘Student Experience of Martial Arts Inventory’

[thumbnail of SANDFORD_Glenn-thesis_nosignature.pdf]
SANDFORD_Glenn-thesis_nosignature.pdf - Submitted Version (555kB) | Preview

Sandford, Glenn (2020) Developing and Psychometrically Testing the ‘Student Experience of Martial Arts Inventory’. Research Master thesis, Victoria University.


In this thesis an argument is made that there is a need for a method to describe and measure a student’s experience of martial arts (MA) training that is psychometrically sound. Such a measure does not currently exist, and would allow researchers to drill down on the specific components of the experience which relate to beneficial outcomes from training. To this end, the aim of the current study was to create and psychometrically evaluate a Martial Arts Inventory (MAI) (Appendix A). A starting inventory of 100 questions were written based on previous research and the author’s MA expertise, then evaluated for face and construct validity in a preliminary study. The items were then subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (n=328) where, after parallel analysis, eight distinct factors, represented by the final 48 items, were extracted (meditative training, respectful discipline, positive training environment, streaming, training behaviour, heavy training, goal orientation, physical challenge). A post hoc analysis of the data collected, with related demographics, showed that many of the existing descriptors for martial arts experiences, such as hard vs soft or internal vs external, failed to provide discrimination between experiences. An exception to this was that those who felt their training was traditional, had significantly higher MAI scores (p<.01) to other respondents (large effect, f=.208). In a subsequent study (n=159), the new MAI was tested for convergent validity with both self-regulation and mindfulness. These tests both showed significant, positive relationships with medium to large effect sizes. It was concluded that the MAI appears valid and fit for use, and that future research which incorporates this instrument will add to the validation and norming of the MAI. As a first of its kind instrument, the MAI may be effective in measuring consistency of student experience across MA schools, and has research utility in exploring the efficacy of MA training.

Additional Information

Master of Applied Research

Item type Thesis (Research Master thesis)
Subjects Historical > FOR Classification > 1701 Psychology
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Health and Sport
Keywords student’s experience; martial arts; training; Martial Arts Inventory; psychology
Download/View statistics View download statistics for this item

Search Google Scholar

Repository staff login