Low Severity Neck Injury from Side Impact

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Lewis, Simone (2018) Low Severity Neck Injury from Side Impact. PhD thesis, Victoria University.

Abstract

Typically, whiplash (low severity neck injury of for short LSNI) is associated with rear impacts. Due to this, there is a wide body of research investigating the mechanism of LSNI as a result of rear impact. Detailed studies into the prevalence of low severity neck injury show that this injury also occurs in front and side impacts (Stryke et al. 2012, Teamming et al., 1998, Jakobsson 1998, Morris et al., 1996, v Koch et. al. 1995,). This thesis is an investigation into low severity neck injury resulting from side impacts. An initial investigation into the Monash University Accident Research Centre database (Australia) and the Loughborough University Co-operative Crash Investigation Study (UK) was undertaken to identify the typical factors associated with LSNI from side impacts. These factors were then used to determine the real-world cases to be reconstructed later in the thesis. As the occupants involved in side impacts are exposed to large lateral accelerations that do not occur in rear impacts, the factors that are associated with LSNI from rear impact cannot automatically be assumed to be a relevant in side impacts. This thesis makes a contribution to research by identifying the factors associated with LSNI that are unique to this side impact. This work can guide future research into the development of human surrogates/ human models to ensure that they more accurately replicate side impacts at multiple impact angles (such as oblique angles), as this thesis shows that LSNI occurs at various side impact angles and not just at 90 degrees. A MADYMO human body model with detailed neck was used to simulate driver response in side impacts. To verify the output from the model, results from post mortem human subjects (PMHS) and live human volunteers, were used for comparison. The impact angles investigated in these trials were 90 degree lateral and 45 degree oblique. Six real world crashes were reconstructed using computer simulations undertaken in MADYMO (Mathematical Dynamic Modelling) and HVE (Human, Vehicle, Environment). Three different impact angles were analysed, namely 90 degree lateral near side, 90 degree lateral far side and 45 degree oblique near side. For each impact angle, two cases were reconstructed, one with an occupant receiving a low severity neck injury, and the other was a control case where the occupant did not receive a low severity neck injury. The methodology used in this thesis of determining crash acceleration (crash pulse) by using HVE has been used previously by researchers (Franklyn et al. 2003, 2005a, 2005b and Hasija et al. 2007, 2009) to investigate head injury. Hasija et al. (2007, 2009), when investigating head injury also programmed the determined the crash pulse (from HVE) into a MADYMO to reconstruct the occupant mechanics using a crash test dummy model.

Item type Thesis (PhD thesis)
URI https://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/42155
Subjects Historical > FOR Classification > 0913 Mechanical Engineering
Current > Division/Research > College of Science and Engineering
Historical > Faculty/School/Research Centre/Department > School of Engineering and Science
Keywords low severity neck injuries; LSNI; whiplash; soft tissue injuries; side impacts; crash simulations; occupant mechanics; computer simulations; car; vehicle; angle of Impact; head restraints; seatbelts; airbags
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