Association of reproductive factors with dementia: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analyses of observational studies

Fu, Chunying, Hao, Wenting, Shrestha, Nipun ORCID: 0000-0003-3542-8130, Virani, SS, Mishra, Shiva Raj ORCID: 0000-0002-2993-3504 and Zhu, Dongshan ORCID: 0000-0002-0697-7432 (0202) Association of reproductive factors with dementia: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analyses of observational studies. EClinicalMedicine, 43. ISSN 2589-5370


Background: Associations between endogenous estrogen exposure indicators and risk of subtypes of dementia have been unclear. Methods: Databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched electronically on 1st July and updated regularly until 12nd November 2021. Observational studies of English language were selected if reported an effect estimate [e.g., odds ratio (OR), rate ratio (RR) or hazard ratio (HR)] and 95% CI for the association between any exposure (age of menarche, age at menopause, reproductive period, estradiol level) and any endpoint variable [all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), cognitive impairment (CI)]. Random-effects models and dose-response meta-analyses were used to calculate estimates and to show the linear/nonlinear relationship. PROSPERO CRD42021274827. Findings: We included 22 studies (475 9764 women) in this analysis. We found no clear relationship between late menarche (≥14 vs <14 years) and dementia, CI in categorical meta-analysis compared to a J-shape relationship in dose-response meta-analyses. Later menopause (≥45 vs <45 years) was consistently associated with a lower risk of all-cause dementia (pooled RR: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.78–0.97, I2=56.0%), AD (0.67, 0.44–0.99, I2=78.3%), VD (0.87, 0.80–0.94) and CI (0.82, 0.71–0.94, I2=19.3%) in categorical meta-analysis, showing similar results in dose-response meta-analyses. An inverse relationship between longer reproductive duration (≥35 vs <35 years) and dementia was observed in dose-response meta-analysis. In addition, estradiol levels after menopause were inversely correlated with the risk of AD and CI. Interpretation: In this study, later menopause and longer reproductive period were associated with a lower risk of dementia, while the relationship for menarchal age was J-shaped. There was an inverse relationship between higher postmenopausal estrogen levels and risk of AD and CI. Longitudinal study are needed to further explore the association between life-time estrogen exposure and risk of subtypes of dementia. Funding: Start-up Foundation for Scientific Research in Shandong University.

Dimensions Badge

Altmetric Badge

Item type Article
DOI 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101236
Official URL
Subjects Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 3202 Clinical sciences
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Health and Sport
Keywords dementia, reproductive factors, late menarche and dementia, estradiol levels
Citations in Scopus 6 - View on Scopus
Download/View statistics View download statistics for this item

Search Google Scholar

Repository staff login