Stimulating the release of exosomes increases the intercellular transfer of prions

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Guo, Belinda B, Bellingham, Shayne A ORCID: 0000-0001-5657-7413 and Hill, Andrew F ORCID: 0000-0001-5581-2354 (2016) Stimulating the release of exosomes increases the intercellular transfer of prions. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291 (10). pp. 5128-5137. ISSN 0021-9258


Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles releasedby cells and play important roles in intercellular communication and pathogen transfer. Exosomes have been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including prion disease and Alzheimer disease. Prion disease arises upon misfolding of the normal cellular prion protein, PrPC, into the disease-associated isoform, PrPSc. The disease has a unique transmissible etiology, and exosomes represent a novel and efficient method for prion transmission. The precise mechanism by which prions are transmitted from cell to cell remains to be fully elucidated, although three hypotheses have been proposed: direct cell-cell contact, tunneling nanotubes, and exosomes. Given the reported presence of exosomes inbiological fluids and in the lipid and nucleic acid contents of exosomes, these vesicles represent an ideal mechanism for encapsulating prions and potential cofactors to facilitate prion transmission. This study investigates the relationship between exosome release and intercellular prion dissemination. Stimulation of exosome release through treatment with an ionophore, monensin, revealed a corresponding increasein in tercellular transferofprion infectivity. Conversely, inhibition of exosome release using GW4869 to target the neutral sphingomyelinase pathway induced a decrease in intercellular prion transmission. Further examination of the effect of monensin on PrP conversion revealed that monensin also alters the conformational stability of PrPC, leading to increased generation of proteinase K-resistant prion protein. The findings presented here provide support for a positive relationship between exosome release and intercellular transfer of prion infectivity, highlighting an integral role for exosomes in facilitating the unique transmissible nature of prions.

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Item type Article
DOI 10.1074/jbc.M115.684258
Official URL
Subjects Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 3207 Medical microbiology
Current > Division/Research > Chancellery
Keywords exosomes, prions, extracellular vesicles, prion transmission, exosome release
Citations in Scopus 101 - View on Scopus
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