Effect of Significant Parameters on Squeeze Film Characteristics in Pathological Synovial Joints

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Sadique, Mo, Shah, Sapna Ratan ORCID: 0000-0002-3155-6357, Sharma, Sunil Kumar ORCID: 0000-0002-1732-2677 and Islam, Sardar M. N ORCID: 0000-0001-9451-7390 (2023) Effect of Significant Parameters on Squeeze Film Characteristics in Pathological Synovial Joints. Mathematics, 11 (6). ISSN 2227-7390


Synovial joints are unique biological tribo-systems that allow for efficient mobility. Most of the synovial joint activities in the human body are accomplished due to the presence of synovial fluid. As a biological lubricant, synovial fluid lubricates the articular cartilage to minimize wear and friction. The key components of synovial fluid that give it its lubricating ability are lubricin, hyaluronic acid (HA), and surface-active phospholipids. Due to age and activities, synovial fluid and articular cartilages lose their properties, restricting synovial joint mobility and resulting in articular cartilage degradation, leading to the pathological synovial joint, which is a major cause of disability. In this context, synovial joint research remains significant. Even though synovial joint lubrication has been investigated, several problems linked to squeeze film lubrication need greater attention. The Newtonian model of squeeze film lubrication in synovial joints must be studied more extensively. This work aims to investigate squeeze film lubrication in diseased synovial joints. The lubrication and other properties of synovial fluid and the flow of synovial fluid in a diseased human knee joint are investigated theoretically in this work. We have investigated the effect of the synovial fluid viscosity and the effects of permeability and thickness of articular cartilage on squeeze film properties. Moreover, we have also investigated the effect of squeeze velocity and film thickness on the characteristics of the squeeze film formed between the articular cartilages of a diseased human knee joint. In this work, the articular cartilages were treated as a rough, porous material, and the geometry was approximated as parallel rectangular plates, while the synovial fluid flow is modeled as a viscous, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid. The modified Reynolds equation is obtained using the principles of hydrodynamic lubrication and continuum mechanics, and it is solved using the appropriate boundary conditions. The expressions for pressure distribution, load-bearing capacity, and squeezing time are then determined, and theoretical analysis for various parameters is conducted. Pressure is increased by squeeze velocity and viscosity, while it is decreased by permeability and film thickness, leading to an unhealthy knee joint and a reduction in knee joint mobility. The load capacity of the knee joint decreases with permeability and increases with viscosity and squeezing velocity, resulting in a reduction in the load-carrying capacity of the knee joint in diseased conditions. Synovial knee joint illness is indicated by increased pressure and squeeze time. The squeeze film properties of synovial joints are important for maintaining joint health and function. Joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout can affect the composition and production of synovial fluid, leading to changes in squeeze film properties and potentially causing joint damage and pain. Understanding these relationships can help in the development of effective treatments for joint diseases.

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Item type Article
URI https://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/45703
DOI 10.3390/math11061468
Official URL https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7390/11/6/1468
Subjects Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 3208 Medical physiology
Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 4901 Applied mathematics
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities
Keywords synovial fluid, squeeze film, lubrication, proteoglycan, hyaluronic acid, articular cartilages
Citations in Scopus 0 - View on Scopus
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