The Effect of Changing the Fuel of the LASTFIRE Test

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Shawash, Firas, Moinuddin, Khalid ORCID: 0000-0002-1831-6754 and Thomas, Ian (2009) The Effect of Changing the Fuel of the LASTFIRE Test. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 22 (4). pp. 540-550. ISSN 0950-4230


The LASTFIRE test is intended for the evaluation of foams used in extinguishing fires of flammable and combustible liquids in storage tanks in refinery and oil related facilities. The purpose of this study is to find, experimentally, an alternative fuel to be used in the LASTFIRE test, as a replacement for the heptane fuel, which is normally used in this test. Beside heptane, three other fuels are tested in the current study: diesel, jet A1 and kerosene. The study involved performing the LASTFIRE test, using each of the fuels and then comparing the results. The same foam is used as an extinguishing agent for all the tests and for each fuel, tests are conducted three times with separate foam discharging nozzles: semi-aspirated, aspirated and system. Using a commonly used scoring system, the results of the four fuels are evaluated. Any replaceable fuel should obtain the similar score as that is obtained by heptane. The study shows that none of the three alternatives has been judged to be suitable to replace heptane, in the LASTFIRE test.

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Item type Article
DOI 10.1016/j.jlp.2009.04.010
Official URL
Subjects Historical > Faculty/School/Research Centre/Department > Centre for Environmental Safety and Risk Engineering (CESARE)
Historical > FOR Classification > 0904 Chemical Engineering
Historical > SEO Classification > 8606 Industrial Chemicals and Related Products
Keywords ResPubID18117, LASTFIRE test, evaluation of foams, fire fighting, storage tanks, oil refineries, fire extinguishers
Citations in Scopus 2 - View on Scopus
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