Gaseous- and condensed-phase activities of some reactive P- and N-containing fire retardants in polystyrenes

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Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana ORCID: 0000-0002-1012-0597, Baby, Aloshy, Joseph, Paul ORCID: 0000-0002-5503-9979, Pospiech, Doris ORCID: 0000-0003-4209-1759, Schierz, Eileen, Lederer, Albena, Arun, Malavika ORCID: 0000-0001-9996-9070 and Fontaine, Gaelle ORCID: 0000-0002-7113-1687 (2022) Gaseous- and condensed-phase activities of some reactive P- and N-containing fire retardants in polystyrenes. Molecules, 28 (1). ISSN 1420-3049


Polystyrene (PS) was modified by covalently binding P-, P-N- and/or N- containing fire-retardant moieties through co- or ter-polymerization reactions of styrene with diethyl(acryloyloxymethyl)phosphonate (DEAMP), diethyl-p-vinylbenzyl phosphonate (DEpVBP), acrylic acid-2-[(diethoxyphosphoryl)methylamino]ethyl ester (ADEPMAE) and maleimide (MI). In the present study, the condensed-phase and the gaseous-phase activities of the abovementioned fire retardants within the prepared co- and ter-polymers were evaluated for the first time. Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry was employed to identify the volatile products formed during the thermal decomposition of the modified polymers. Benzaldehyde, α-methylstyrene, acetophenone, triethyl phosphate and styrene (monomer, dimer and trimer) were detected in the gaseous phase following the thermal cracking of fire-retardant groups and through main chain scissions. In the case of PS modified with ADEPMAE, the evolution of pyrolysis gases was suppressed by possible inhibitory actions of triethyl phosphate in the gaseous phase. The reactive modification of PS by simultaneously incorporating P- (DEAMP or DEpVBP) and N- (MI) monomeric units, in the chains of ter-polymers, resulted in a predominantly condensed-phase mode of action owing to synergistic P and N interactions. The solid-state 31P NMR spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Inductively-Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of char residues, obtained from ter-polymers, confirmed the retention of the phosphorus species in their structures.

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Item type Article
DOI 10.3390/molecules28010278
Official URL
Subjects Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 4004 Chemical engineering
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities
Keywords polystyrene, PS, thermal insulation, fire hazard, comubstion
Citations in Scopus 0 - View on Scopus
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