Development of a cost-based design model for spread footings in cohesive soils

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Nawaz, Muhammad Muneeb, Khan, Shah Rukh, Farooq, Rashid ORCID: 0000-0002-4763-7645, Nawaz, Muhammad Naqeeb, Khan, Jamil, Tariq, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman ORCID: 0000-0002-0226-7310, Tufail, Rana Faisal, Farooq, Danish and Ng, Anne WM ORCID: 0000-0002-7698-9068 (2022) Development of a cost-based design model for spread footings in cohesive soils. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14 (9). ISSN 2071-1050


The use of cost-effective construction design approaches is an emerging concept in the field of sustainable environments. The design of the foundation for the construction of any infrastructure-related building entails three basic requirements, i.e., serviceability limit state (SLS), ultimate limit state (ULS), and economics. Engineering economy coupled with safety are the two main essentials for a successful construction project. The conventional design approaches are based on hit and trial methods to approach cost-effective design. Additionally, safety requirements are prioritized over the economic aspect of foundation design and do not consider safety requirements and cost simultaneously. This study presents a design approach that considers foundation construction costs while satisfying all the technical requirements of a shallow foundation design. This approach is called an optimization process in which the cost-based isolated foundation design charts were developed based on the field SPT N data. The design charts are the first of their kind for the robust design of foundations and can be used to compare the economic impact of different bearing capacity models. Furthermore, the design framework considers the quantitative impact of the different applied factors of safety values in terms of cost. The results show that Vesic’s equation yields higher values of bearing capacities than Terzaghi and Meyerhof. On the other hand, Vesic’s theory offers a 37.5% reduction in cost as compared to the conventional design approach of the foundation for isolated footing.

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keywords: bearing capacity,cost estimate,cost optimization,shallow foundation

Item type Article
DOI 10.3390/su14095699
Official URL
Subjects Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 4005 Civil engineering
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities
Keywords cost based design, soils, cost effective construction, engineering economy, safety, construction projects
Citations in Scopus 2 - View on Scopus
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