Immunotherapies for the treatment of drug addiction

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Hossain, Md Kamal ORCID: 0000-0001-5173-8994, Davidson, Majid ORCID: 0000-0002-3241-6444, Kypreos, Erica ORCID: 0000-0002-1574-303X, Feehan, Jack ORCID: 0000-0002-9627-1299, Muir, Joshua Alexander, Nurgali, Kulmira ORCID: 0000-0002-2597-6929 and Apostolopoulos, Vasso ORCID: 0000-0001-6788-2771 (2022) Immunotherapies for the treatment of drug addiction. Vaccines, 10 (11). ISSN 2076-393X


Substance use disorders (SUD) are a serious public health concern globally. Existing treatment platforms suffer from a lack of effectiveness. The development of immunotherapies against these substances of abuse for both prophylactic and therapeutic use has gained tremendous importance as an alternative and/or supplementary to existing therapies. Significant development has been made in this area over the last few decades. Herein, we highlight the vaccine and other biologics development strategies, preclinical, clinical updates along with challenges and future directions. Articles were searched in PubMed,, and google electronic databases relevant to development, preclinical, clinical trials of nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, and opioid vaccines. Various new emerging vaccine development strategies for SUD were also identified through this search and discussed. A good number of vaccine candidates demonstrated promising results in preclinical and clinical phases and support the concept of developing a vaccine for SUD. However, there have been no ultimate success as yet, and there remain some challenges with a massive push to take more candidates to clinical trials for further evaluation to break the bottleneck.

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Item type Article
DOI 10.3390/vaccines10111778
Official URL
Subjects Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 3202 Clinical sciences
Current > Division/Research > Australian Institute of Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS)
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Health and Sport
Current > Division/Research > College of Health and Biomedicine
Keywords substance use disorder, SUD, addiction, public health, substance use disorder treatment, vaccines
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