Studying the effect of blue-green infrastructure on microclimate and human thermal comfort in Melbourne’s central business district

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Balany, Fatma, Muttil, Nitin ORCID: 0000-0001-7758-8365, Muthukumaran, Shobha ORCID: 0000-0002-2660-8060, Wong, Man Sing ORCID: 0000-0002-6439-6775 and Ng, Anne WM ORCID: 0000-0002-7698-9068 (2022) Studying the effect of blue-green infrastructure on microclimate and human thermal comfort in Melbourne’s central business district. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14 (15). ISSN 2071-1050


Blue-green infrastructure (BGI) is defined as a strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services, which include microclimate regulation and enhanced human thermal comfort. While green infrastructure is widely known to be capable of mitigating the adverse effects of urban heat island, the effect of blue infrastructure to regulate thermal comfort is still poorly understood. This study investigates several blue-green-infrastructure (BGI) scenarios in the central business district (CBD) of Melbourne, Australia to assess their effects on microclimate and human thermal comfort. Three-dimensional microclimatic modelling software, ENVI-met, was used to simulate the microclimate and human thermal comfort. Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was used to quantify the level of thermal comfort in selected research areas. Ten different scenarios were simulated, which included those based on green roofs, green walls, trees, ponds and fountains. The simulations suggest that green roofs and green walls in the high-rise building environment have a small temperature reduction in its surrounding area by up to 0.47 °C and 0.27 °C, respectively, and there is no noticeable improvement in the level of thermal perception. The tree-based scenarios decrease temperature by up to 0.93 °C and improve the thermal perception from hot to warm. Scenarios based on water bodies and fountains decrease the temperature by up to 0.51 °C and 1.48 °C, respectively, yet they cannot improve the thermal perception of the area. A deeper water body has a better microclimate improvement as compared to a shallow one. The temperature reduction in the fountain scenario tends to be local and the effect could only be felt within a certain radius from the fountain.

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Item type Article
DOI 10.3390/su14159057
Official URL
Subjects Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 4005 Civil engineering
Current > Division/Research > College of Science and Engineering
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities
Keywords BGI, blue green infrastructure, ecosystem services, thermal comfort, Melbourne, Australia, CBD
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