Producing bacterial cellulose from industrial recycling paper waste sludge

Nguyen Ngo, Thuc Tri, Phan, Thuy Han, Thong Le, Tuan Minh, Tu Le, Tan Nhan ORCID: 0000-0002-6166-9897, Huynh, Quyen, Trang Phan, Thi Phuong ORCID: 0000-0002-4255-0495, Hoang, Manh ORCID: 0000-0001-8173-7159, Vo, Tan Phat ORCID: 0000-0002-3391-5683 and Nguyen, Dinh Quan (2023) Producing bacterial cellulose from industrial recycling paper waste sludge. Heliyon, 9 (7). ISSN 2405-8440


This study aimed to produce bacterial cellulose from paper waste sludge (PWS) as a method of utilizing the cellulose source from the remaining pulp in the material. Initially, PWS was hydrolyzed by sulfuric acid to create an enriched-reducing sugar hydrolysate. One-factor experiments were conducted with a fixed amount of PWS (5 g) to investigate the influence of hydrolysis conditions, including water, sulfuric acid addition, temperature, and retention time, on the production yield of reducing sugars. Based on these results, the Box-Behnken model was designed to optimize the hydrolysis reaction. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were 10 ml/g of the sulfuric acid solution (30.9%) at 105.5 °C for 90 min of retention time 0.81 (gGE/g PWS), corresponding to a conversion yield of 40.5%). Subsequently, 100 ml of the filtered and neutralized PWS hydrolysate was used as the culture to produce the bacterial cellulose (BC) using Acetobacter xylinum, which produced 12 g/L of bacterial cellulose. The conversion yield of bacterial cellulose calculated as the ratio of the weight of produced bacterial cellulose to that of cellulose in PWS reached 33.3%. The structure of the obtained BC was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to indicate the formation of nano-cellulose fiber networks. This research proposed a combined method to convert paper waste sludge into bacterial cellulose, demonstrating the potential for waste utilization and sustainable production of paper industries for added-value products.

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Item type Article
DOI 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e17663
Official URL
Subjects Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 4005 Civil engineering
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities
Keywords bacterial cellulose, paper waste, fibre networks, waste utilisation, sustainable paper production
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