Stormwater Treatment Using Natural and Engineered Options in an Urban Growth Area: A Case Study in the West of Melbourne

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Sanciolo, Peter ORCID: 0000-0001-7786-6038, Sharma, Ashok ORCID: 0000-0002-0172-5033, Navaratna, Dimuth ORCID: 0000-0002-7093-1092 and Muthukumaran, Shobha ORCID: 0000-0002-2660-8060 (2023) Stormwater Treatment Using Natural and Engineered Options in an Urban Growth Area: A Case Study in the West of Melbourne. Water, 15 (23). ISSN 2073-4441


The expected increase in urbanization and population in coming years is going to increase the impervious land area, leading to substantial increases in stormwater runoff and hydrological challenges, and presents significant challenges for urban potable water supply. These are worldwide challenges that can potentially be ameliorated by harvesting stormwater for potable use or for other uses that can reduce the pressure on potable water supply. This study sought to assist the local water authority in planning for future potable water supply through a review of the scientific literature to determine the likely chemical and microbial characteristics of stormwater, the treatment train (TT) requirements, and the likely costs of treatment to achieve potable standards for the high-growth metropolitan region of Melbourne, Australia. Literature stormwater quality statistical data and treatment process performance data were used to model the expected product water microbial and chemical quality after treatment using a number of advanced TT options. The results of the modelling were compared with literature microbial log reduction targets (LRTs) for the potable use of stormwater and with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). It was found that a reverse osmosis (RO)-based TT with microfiltration pre-treatment and post-RO advanced oxidation and chlorination in storage reservoirs is a conservative stormwater potable use treatment option. A less conservative and less expensive ozone-and-biologically active filtration (O3/BAF)-based TT option is also proposed if RO concentrate disposal is deemed to be too challenging. These results could be useful in climate change adaptation involving the evaluation of options for the mitigation of future population-growth- and climate-change-driven water supply challenges, as well as urbanization-driven stormwater hydrology and receiving water pollution challenges.

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Item type Article
DOI 10.3390/w15234047
Official URL
Subjects Current > FOR (2020) Classification > 4004 Chemical engineering
Current > Division/Research > College of Science and Engineering
Current > Division/Research > Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities
Keywords stormwater harvesting; potable water supply; potable reuse; climate change; treatment trains; stormwater quality
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