Central role of nitric oxide synthase in AICAR and caffeine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in L6 myocytes

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McConell, Glenn ORCID: 0000-0002-8572-9065, Ng, GPY, Phillips, M, Ruan, Z, Macaulay, S Lance and Wadley, Glenn D (2010) Central role of nitric oxide synthase in AICAR and caffeine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in L6 myocytes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 108 (3). pp. 589-595. ISSN 1522-1601 (print) 8750-7587(online)


5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleoside (AICAR) and caffeine, which activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cause sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release, respectively, have been shown to increase mitochondrial biogenesis in L6 myotubes. Nitric oxide (NO) donors also increase mitochondrial biogenesis. Since neuronal and endothelial NO synthase (NOS) are calcium dependent and are also phosphorylated by AMPK, we hypothesized that NOS inhibition would attenuate the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in response to AICAR and caffeine. L6 myotubes either were not treated (control) or were exposed acutely or for 5 h/day over 5 days to 100 μM of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, NOS inhibitor), 100 μM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) (NO donor) ± 100 μM l-NAME, 2 mM AICAR ± 100 μM l-NAME, or 5 mM caffeine ± 100 μM l-NAME (n = 12/treatment). Acute AICAR administration increased (P < 0.05) phospho- (P-)AMPK, but also increased P-CaMK, with resultant chronic increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), cytochrome-c oxidase (COX)-1, and COX-4 protein expression compared with control cells. NOS inhibition, which had no effect on AICAR-stimulated P-AMPK, surprisingly increased P-CaMK and attenuated the AICAR-induced increases in COX-1 and COX-4 protein. Caffeine administration, which increased P-CaMK without affecting P-AMPK, increased COX-1, COX-4, PGC-1α, and citrate synthase activity. NOS inhibition, surprisingly, greatly attenuated the effect of caffeine on P-CaMK and attenuated the increases in COX-1 and COX-4 protein. SNAP increased all markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, and it also increased P-AMPK and P-CaMK. In conclusion, AICAR and caffeine increase mitochondrial biogenesis in L6 myotubes, at least in part, via interactions with NOS.

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Item type Article
URI https://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/6979
DOI 10.1152/japplphysiol.00377.2009
Official URL http://jap.physiology.org/content/108/3/589
Subjects Historical > Faculty/School/Research Centre/Department > Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL)
Historical > FOR Classification > 0606 Physiology
Historical > SEO Classification > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)
Keywords ResPubID20940, adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase, calcium mitochondria, nitric oxide synthase, cells
Citations in Scopus 60 - View on Scopus
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