Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances

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Nicholls, A and Polman, Remco (2008) Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 21 (3). pp. 283-294. ISSN 1061-5806


A limitation of the sport psychology coping literature is the amount of time between a stressful episode and the recall of the coping strategies used in the stressful event (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a technique to measure acute stress and coping during performance. Five high-performance adolescent golfers took part in Level 2 verbalization think aloud trials (Ericsson & Simon, 1993), which involved participants verbalizing their thoughts, over six holes of golf. Verbal reports were audio-recorded during each performance, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). The results also revealed information regarding the sequential patterning of stress and coping, suggesting that the golfers experienced up to five stressors before reporting a coping strategy. Think aloud appears a suitable method to collect concurrent stress and coping data.

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Additional Information

Online ISSN: 1477-2205

Item type Article
DOI 10.1080/10615800701609207
Official URL
Subjects Historical > FOR Classification > 1701 Psychology
Historical > Faculty/School/Research Centre/Department > Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL)
Keywords ResPubID22037. thinking out loud, talking to oneself, golfing performance, English golfers, England
Citations in Scopus 73 - View on Scopus
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